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Table 2 Effect of tobacco smoking status during pregnancy on CpG sites of CYP1A1 in placental tissue (n = 382)

From: Placental mitochondrial DNA and CYP1A1 gene methylation as molecular signatures for tobacco smoke exposure in pregnant women and the relevance for birth weight

CYP1A1 methylationa Non-smoking Past-smoking Smoking
% (95% CI) p value % (95% CI) p value
CpG 1 Ref. −1.16 (−5.90 to 3.56) 0.99 1.75 (−3.09 to 6.60) 0.95
CpG 2 Ref. −0.30 (−4.25 to 3.66) 0.99 0.43 (−3.63 to 4.49) 0.99
CpG 3 Ref. 0.02 (−2.47 to 2.51) 0.99 −4.57 (−7.15 to −1.98) <0.0001
CpG 4 Ref. 1.00 (−2.11 to 4.11) 0.98 0.98 (−2.22 to 4.19) 0.99
  1. Data shown in italic is significant
  2. Mixed-effects models are adjusted for maternal age, gestational age, newborn’s sex, maternal education, ethnicity, parity, pre-pregnancy BMI, and alcohol consumption
  3. aEstimated absolute percentage (%) change in methylation levels for each CpG of CYP1A1 compared to the non-smoking group (reference). The 95% CI and p values are adjusted according to Dunnett’s procedure