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Table 4 Applications and directions of bioprinting organs

From: Recent advances in bioprinting techniques: approaches, applications and future prospects

Bioprinted tissues and organs 3D printing technology Applications Future directions References
Blood vessels Inkjet bioprinting Optimizing vascular geometry and cell viability and function
Predicting flow rates, oxygen tension, and the diffusion of molecules in the vascular environment
Improving resolution for printing small vessels
Increasing available bioink materials
Increasing bioprinting speed
[22, 111]
Extrusion bioprinting
Laser-assisted bioprinting
Heart Extrusion-based bioprinting Printing valvular interstitial cells into scaffolds with high speed and good viability (~100 %) over 21 days
Printing hydrogel-based valve-shaped structures
Developing types of materials with good flexibility and elasticity [31, 77, 83]
Bone SLA Printing scaffolds that provide a framework for cells to attach, proliferate and function and to be integrated with the surrounding tissue
Accurately controlling pore geometry, cell viability and mechanical properties
Investigating printed materials with osteoinductive or osteoconductive proteins
Triggering vascularization in the repaired region
[112, 113]
Laser-assisted bioprinting
Liver Inkjet printing Printing biological livers for liver transplantation in patients with liver resection
Constructing artificial liver tissue for the detection of drug toxicities and other medical and biological testing
Constructing 3D functional liver tissue with a substantial capillary-like network [95, 99, 114]
Skin Inkjet bioprinting Fabricating skin substitutes to repair skin wounds
Studying the pathophysiology of skin diseases
Fabricating more complex human skin models with secondary and adnexal structures
Improving LAB technology to achieve automation for bioprinting skin
[42, 93]
Extrusion bioprinting
Laser-assisted bioprinting