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Table 3 3D-printed ceramic materials for tissue engineering

From: Recent advances in bioprinting techniques: approaches, applications and future prospects

Material Porosity and compressive strength Biological properties Printing type References
SiO2/ZnO 32–52 % and 2–10 MPa Increased mechanical strength and cellular proliferation Inkjet-based bioprinting [105]
β-TCP/POC (poly-1,8-octanediol-co-citrate) 45 % High compressive modulus and good drug delivery performance Micro-droplet jetting [106]
CaSiO3 70 % and 7 MPa Enhanced cell attachment and osteogenic activity 3D printing [100]
CaCO3/SiO2 34 % and 47 MPa resulting in improved mechanical properties and good cell affinity Laser-aided gelling (LAG) [107]
Sr–Mg doped TCP 4–12 MPa Increased osteons and, consequently, an enhanced network of blood vessel formation and osteocalcin expression 3D printing [108]
HA/PVOH (poly(vinyl)alcohol) 55 % and 0.88 MPa Osteoconduction and osteointegration in vivo 3D printing [109]
HSP bioceramic (hollow-struts-packed) 65–85 % and ~5 MPa Significantly improved cell attachment and proliferation; promotion of formation of new bone tissue in the center of the scaffolds A modified coaxial 3D printing [110]