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Table 1 Study design and observation items

From: Percutaneous irreversible electroporation for breast tissue and breast cancer: safety, feasibility, skin effects and radiologic–pathologic correlation in an animal study

  Aim Skin electrode distance/electrode spacing Observation items Subgroups
Pig model To test irreversible electroporation ablation of the breast 3 mm in 1 pig, 5–8 mm in five pigs/electrode spacing: 1.5–2 cm Safety and feasibility–pathological changes and imaging changes: apoptosis assays, skin and breast regeneration IRE group: 6 pigs sham treatment group: 2 pigs. Three left breasts in each pig were ablated or processed, and the right breasts were used as controls
Rabbit model To test irreversible electroporation ablation of the breast with thin skin 1 mm in 4 ablation zones and 3 mm in another 4 ablation zones
Electrode spacing: 1.5–2 cm
Safety and skin architecture 8 sessions of IRE performed in 4 rabbits
Rabbit model with breast cancer To test irreversible electroporation ablation of breast cancer with thin skin 1, 3 mm and no less than 5 mm
Electrode spacing: 1.5–2 cm
Changes in pathology and ultrasound: skin architecture, contrast-enhanced ultrasound and elastosonography 4 rabbits
Two breast cancer models were generated in each rabbit