Skip to main content


Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Fig. 4 | Journal of Translational Medicine

Fig. 4

From: Percutaneous irreversible electroporation for breast tissue and breast cancer: safety, feasibility, skin effects and radiologic–pathologic correlation in an animal study

Fig. 4

Pathological changes to pig breast after IRE. a Gross pathology. The tissue near the electrode tract had darkened, whereas the tissue far from the electrode appeared normal. b (×200): vacuolization in breast acinar epithelial cells with normal mammary gland architecture. c (×200). d (×400) Three days after IRE, there was serous fluid in the mammary duct, with exfoliation of epithelial cells and vacuolization, and the tissue architecture was normal. e Squamous cells in the breast skin (upper figure ×400) were stained with HE and appeared normal. f Damage to nearby striated muscle, with myolysis. g (×400) Ten days after IRE, the mammary duct was normal. h (×100) Ten days after IRE, collagen fibers formed in the electrode path. j (×100) Two months after IRE, the breast tissue (acinar, duct) was normal

Back to article page