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Table 2 Lipid items significantly changed in response to berberine treatment and lifestyle intervention

From: Lipid profiling of the therapeutic effects of berberine in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

  BBR plus LSI (n = 41) P value LSI (n = 39) P value
Baseline 16 w Baseline 16 w
Free fat acid
 FA(15:1) 3.5 ± 2.3 2.5 ± 1.5 0.029 3.1 ± 2.3 2.9 ± 3.0 0.689
 FA(16:1) 2.5 (1.5–3.5) 1.5 (1.1–2.4) 0.006 2.1 (1.3–3.5) 1.2 (0.9–2.4) 0.013
 FA(16:2) 1.6 (0.7–2.2) 0.7 (0.5–1.2) 0.008 1.1 (0.7–2.5) 0.6 (0.5–1.3) 0.028
 FA(16:3) 1.3 ± 1.0 0.9 ± 0.6 0.026 1.3 ± 1.2 1.1 ± 1.1 0.453
 FA(18:1) 2.7 (1.7–4.1) 2.0 (1.5–3.3) 0.043 2.4 (1.7–3.4) 1.6 (1.1–2.9) 0.054
 FA(18:2) 2.3 (1.3–3.6) 1.2 (0.8–1.8) 0.005 1.6 (1.1–3.0) 1.4 (0.8–1.7) 0.010
 FA(20:2) 2.4 (1.3–4.1) 1.7 (1.0–2.8) 0.024 1.9 (1.3–2.9) 1.4 (1.0–2.1) 0.028
 FA(20:3) 2.1 (1.3–4.3) 1.4 (0.9–2.1) 0.003 1.7 (1.3–3.3) 1.3 (1.0–1.9) 0.031
 FA(20:4) 1.6 (0.8–3.0) 0.8 (0.6–1.5) 0.005 1.2 (0.8–2.2) 0.9 (0.6–1.5) 0.081
 FA(20:5) 1.3 (0.6–3.3) 0.7 (0.4–1.21) 0.006 1.3 (0.7–3.3) 0.9 (0.5–2.2) 0.176
 FA(22:4) 2.8 ± 1.9 2.0 ± 1.6 0.038 2.7 ± 2.4 2.2 ± 1.8 0.294
 FA(22:5) 1.5 (0.9–2.4) 1.1 (0.7–1.7) 0.032 1.4 (1.0–2.0) 1.2 (0.9–1.8) 0.230
 FA(22:6) 1.3 (0.9–2.9) 1.0 (0.6–1.7) 0.017 1.3 (0.9–2.8) 1.1 (0.7–2.0) 0.101
  FA27 0.9 (0.6–1.6) 0.8 (0.5–1.3) 0.381 1.0 (0.7–1.6) 0.7 (0.5–1.1) 0.040
  FA3 1.0 (0.7–1.4) 0.6 (0.4–1.2) 0.018 1.1 (0.6–1.7) 0.8 (0.6–1.2) 0.057
  FA40 2.1 ± 1.6 1.4 ± 1.0 0.011 2.2 ± 1.9 1.8 ± 1.5 0.303
  FA48 2.2 (1.3–4.4) 1.4 (0.9–2.1) 0.020 1.8 (1.2–4.2) 1.2 (0.9–2.8) 0.072
  FA51 2.9 (2.01–4.8) 1.9 (1.3–3.0) 0.004 2.5 (1.6–3.6) 1.9 (1.4–2.6) 0.029
 FA(α-18:3) 1.9 (1.1–3.6) 1.0 (0.8–1.4) 0.003 1.8 (1.2–2.6) 1.0 (0.7–1.5) 0.002
 FA(γ-18:3) 1.7 (1.0–2.8) 0.9 (0.7–1.2) 0.001 1.3 (0.8–2.3) 0.9 (0.7–1.7) 0.842
Sphingolipid (pmol/ml)
 Sph(d18:1) 15.3 (6.1–38.1) 11.3 (4.7–22.8) 0.139 20.4 (7.1–35.5) 10.7 (4.8–19.0) 0.050
 Cer(d18:1/18:0) 41.1 (30.4–52.0) 31.8 (25.1–43.6) 0.033 37.7 (33.3–50.6) 34.8 (27.1–47.5) 0.576
 Cer(d18:1/18:0)-1-p 472.4 (337.2–668.4) 423.6 (327.1–497.6) 0.033 491.5 (360.7–635.4) 459.8 (328.5–542.1) 0.734
 Cer(d18:1/20:0) 103.7 (67.0–121.5) 87.1 (67.3–103.1) 0.047 87.1 (80.9–109.3) 85.5 (72.9–104.0) 0.398
 Cer(d18:1/28:0)-1-P 88.3 (68.4–114.5) 81.4 (60.0–107.4) 0.219 91.1 (73.2–119.9) 95.9 (78.3–128.5)# 0.215
 SM(d18:1/12:0) 1102.8 (561.7–1328.7) 1131.0 (615.0–1342.1) 0.066 1495.6 (921.5–1717.5)* 1794.1 (1221.6–2473.0) 0.854
 SM(d18:1/16:1) 266084.4 (183,325.4–335932.6) 213,504.2 (151,956.4–266,787.1) 0.019 247,807.9 (168,113.3–334,244.5) 225,052.0 (160,531.6–291,093.4) 0.247
 SM(d18:1/24:4) 1810.8 (1290.7–2388.9) 2426.6 (1756.9–3651.7) 0.040 1389.6 (916.5–2164.5) 1782.6 (1215.9–2228.4) 0.131
Phosphoglyceride (pmol/ml)
 LPC(14:0) 766.1 ± 533.2 508.5 ± 278.9 0.008 777.1 ± 562.5 651.7 ± 344.9# 0.239
 LPC(16:1) 2149.7 (1322.3–2461.9) 1288 (1020–1662) 0.001 1948.2 (1509.1–2438.3) 1567.1 (1097.0–2049.6) 0.021
 LPC(18:0) 63,379.6 (44,850.8–85,600.2) 47,396.8 (37,198.6–62,924.2) 0.020 56,000.6 (40,633.9–80,246.4) 49,921.7 (37,941.0–72,519.6) 0.308
 LPC(18:1) 21,454.3 (15,067.6–27,481.6) 21,789 (19,151–29,051) 0.233 20,582.1 (15,193.3–26,645.2) 26,269.2 (19,120.5–32,008.3) 0.034
 LPC(18:2) 27,509.3 (23,480.1–35,012.6) 43,606 (36,613–51,253) 0.000 29,714.0 (24,478.3–35,012.0) 44,172.4 (37,096.7–54,805.1) 0.000
 LPC(18:3) 13,616.8 (11,638.8–15,873.7) 11,489 (9480–12,909) 0.000 13,153.1 (11,447.2–14,964.1) 11,987.2 (9410.4–14,232.1) 0.019
 LPC(20:0) 240.3 (195.0–2721.8 179.9 (128.8–214.5) 0.003 211.5 (142.3–300.6) 195.2 (147.0–250.7) 0.209
 LPC(20:2) 431.6 (223.3–603.5) 505.6 (324.2–729.5) 0.140 332.2 (273.4–565.4) 538.1 (413.1–763.0) 0.005
 LPC(20:3) 9995.9 ± 3311.8 10,234.2 ± 2985.6 0.733 10,128.2 ± 3877.3 11,989.3 ± 4074.7# 0.031
 LPC(20:4) 10,415.2 (9050.0–12,533.2) 22,367.1 (18,945.2–27,351.0) 0.000 9537.0 (8019.2–13,176.2) 23,141.1 (18,657.2–30,853.1) 0.000
 LPC(20:5) 5946.8 (4188.1–6098.2) 7162.1 (6231.0–8515.7) 0.000 5548.6 (4449.0–6600.0) 7380.1 (6296.8–8854.0) 0.000
 LPC(22:6) 2154.4 (1496.9–2841.6) 4731 (3964–7186) 0.000 2039.1 (1394.3–2047.0) 5763.1 (4396.7–7838.1) 0.000
 LPE(16:0) 575.5 (437.8–733.7) 506.9 (409.4–689.7) 0.688 685.2 (530.7–882.2)* 646.4 (447.8–1000.5) 0.311
 LPE(18:0) 632.9 (434.0–876.8) 322.9 (229.4–417.5) 0.000 682.3 (462.8–955.6) 362.4 (255.5–475.9) 0.000
 LPE(O-20:0) 326.1 ± 150.4 232.3 ± 110.2 0.002 324.5 ± 196.0 283.1 ± 187.0 0.343
LPI(18:0) 286.1 (145.7–426.6) 649.0 (545.0–1019.9) 0.000 266.2 (166.9–538.2) 770.2 (591.7–1063.6) 0.000
 LPI(20:4) 135.1 (8.31–214.0) 642.8 (505.1–772.2) 0.000 156.7 (117.3–238.0) 750.9 (552.6–883.7) 0.000
 LPS(O-18:0) 161.9 (102.2–189.9) 137.1 (111.0–179.0) 0.236 156.6 (79.3–230.5) 84.9 (62.7–126.7) 0.010
 PC(O-36:3) 2406.3 (1419.2–4111.8) 1645.2 (1028.1–2062.1) 0.010 2601.0 (2043.8–3684.2) 1416.1 (978.2–2124.0) 0.000
 PC(34:0) 3277.6 (2676.6–3817.9) 2862.6 (2007.3–3850.8) 0.525 2615.7 (1906.1–3682.2)* 2662.1 (2300.6–3108.3) 0.128
 PC(36:4) 93,069.1 (79,780.3–136,743.0) 102,356.0 (74,512.1–151,229.2) 0.677 85,712.1 (69,863.2–123,458.7) 82,948.5 (64,544.1–106,702.8) 0.881
 PC(38:4) 62,078.4 (51,420.4–81,452.7) 60,376.6 (49,836.6–88,052.3) 0.544 51,559.8 (45,042.3–69,994.4)* 54,934.6 (43,751.4–67,162.3) 0.693
 PC(P-38:5) 1997.1 (1525.7–3132.2) 1076.7 (545.6–1717.7) 0.000 1868.1 (1443.7–2673.1) 834.8 (584.1–1232.5) 0.000
 PC(40:5) 4708.1 (2919.5–6161.2) 4472.5 (2727.7–7600.9) 0.694 3020.5 (1615.0–5141.7)* 3764.6 (2770.9–4453.6) 0.267
 PC(40:8) 5548.6 (3987.5–8139.5) 4550.1 (2762.6–6087.2) 0.048 5139.6 (3316.1–6483.0) 4002.0 (3025.1–5229.7) 0.213
 PC(40:9) 1262.7 (704.9–1563.1) 1222.2 (831.9–1621.9) 0.861 1022.2 (766.7–1213.7) 770.0 (549.5–1103.0) 0.073
 PI(34:2) 5696.3 (3559.2–11,738.2) 3535 (2142–6030) 0.008 7266.5 (3857.6–14,957.1) 4547.6 (1833.0–10,994.1) 0.033
 PI(36:2) 5850.2 (4289.3–8214.6) 5376.2 (3834.7–7459.8) 0.328 6546.3 (4829.2–8008.2) 4412.7 (3257.6–6519.1) 0.010
 PI(36:3) 1196.8 (774.1–1642.2) 929.8 (732.7–1315.8) 0.212 1156.7 (863.7–1461.1) 867.2 (592.8–1153.4) 0.034
 PI(36:4) 13,953.2 (4650.9–25,982.1) 5958.3 (3447.4–15,387.2) 0.040 13,822.2 (5681.0–29,772.2) 7950.0 (3106.8–24,503.1) 0.225
 PI(38:4) 26,434.9 (18,158.4–38,048.0) 23,546.5 (16,653.2–33,951.2) 0.305 29,146.6 (22,843.2–36,429.2) 21,230.1 (15,293.6–31,947.8) 0.018
 PI(38:6) 2417.7 (1479.4–48,710.8) 1712.3 (1181.8–3517.3) 0.073 3413.8 (2439.5–5993.4) 2308.4 (1689.1–3363.4) 0.014
 PI(40:6) 794.9 (589.5–1326.9) 543.3 (421.2–829.7) 0.003 932.1 (680.0–1457.6) 646.1 (489.2–1081.1) 0.016
 PS(P-36:1) 4455.3 (2066.7–7302.3) 2056.2 (1040.2–3618.7) 0.003 3341.2 (2557.0–5854.9) 2351.0 (1410.1–3852.2) 0.021
Triglyceride (pmol/ml)
 TG(46:11) 247.4 (132.5–668.7) 121.2 (87.3–418.6) 0.216 219.2 (156.8–517.2) 194.1 (89.2–284.2) 0.005
 TG(48:0) 290.9 (117.6–594.5) 250.8 (83.1–535.7) 0.068 482.4 (135.7–1054.5) 463.8 (103.9–1081.2)# 0.199
 TG(P-52:1) 26.5 (18.8–56.7) 27.7 (14.7–40.9) 0.919 42.0 (25.7–66.0) 42.8 (22.5–65.5)# 0.618
 TG(52:7) 275.6 (148.7–418.7) 215.2 (128.7–335.2) 0.007 320.1 (154.0–762.8) 311.2 (172.1–518.0)# 0.116
 TG(54:8) 711.3 (419.8–1176.3) 579.2 (284.1–909.1) 0.053 937.5 (433.3–2118.2) 913.9 (433.4–1363.6)# 0.074
  1. The data were presented as the mean ± SD, except for skewed variables, which were presented as the median with the interquartile range given in parentheses. The unit of lipids in this table was pmol/mL, except for free fatty acids which were 1
  2. * P < 0.05 when comparing berberine plus lifestyle intervention group and lifestyle intervention alone group at baseline
  3. # P < 0.05 when comparing berberine plus lifestyle intervention group and lifestyle intervention alone group after 16-week treatment