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Table 4 Metabolite-enzyme links as identified in the DKD molecular model and description of assigned reactions and transport function

From: Serum metabolites predict response to angiotensin II receptor blockers in patients with diabetes mellitus

Metabolite-enzyme link Description
Metabolite Enzyme
ADMA NOS2, NOS3 Produces nitric oxide (NOS) which is a messenger molecule with diverse functions throughout the body. In macrophages, NO mediates tumoricidal and bactericidal actions. Also has nitrosylase activity and mediates cysteine S-nitrosylation of cytoplasmic target proteins such COX2
ADMA is an endogeous inhibitor of eNOS (NOS3) function
Aspargine Glutamine ASNS Asparagine Synthase: Adenosine triphosphate + l-Aspartic acid + l-Glutamine + Water → Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + l-Asparagine + l-Glutamic acid
Asparagine SLC1A1 Solute carries family member 1, l-Asp cotransporter
Glutamine TGM2 Catalyzes the cross-linking of proteins and the conjugation of polyamines to proteins
Citrulline NOS1, NOS2, NOS3 l-Arginine + NADPH + Oxygen → Citrulline + Nitric oxide + NADP + Water
NADPH + N-(o)-Hydroxyarginine + Oxygen + Hydrogen Ion → NADP + Nitric oxide + Citrulline + Water
l-Arginine + Oxygen + NADPH + Hydrogen Ion → Nitric oxide + Citrulline + NADP + Water
lysoPC a C16:0
lysoPC a C16:1
PC aa C36:0
PC aa C42:2
PLA2G1B PA2 catalyzes the calcium-dependent hydrolysis of the 2-acyl groups in 3-sn-phosphoglycerides
PC aa C36:0 ATP8A1
ATP10A
PLSCR1
Transport of aminophospholipids
Tryptophan IDO1 Catalyzes the cleavage of the pyrrol ring of tryptophan and incorporates both atoms of a molecule of oxygen