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Table 2 Summary of studies using Apoe−/− mice conducted by PMI

From: The Apoe−/− mouse model: a suitable model to study cardiovascular and respiratory diseases in the context of cigarette smoke exposure and harm reduction

Disease, mechanism References Biological matrix Endpoint Effect of CS exposure Effect of cessation
CVD [116] Aorta Lipidomics ND
CVD [117] Aorta Lipidomics ↓→
CVD [19] Aorta Lipidomics ↓→
CVD [42] Carotid artery Thrombosis ND
CVD [42] Carotid artery Endothelial injury ND
CVD [116] Liver Lipidomics ↑→ ND
CVD [118] Liver Lipidomics ↓↑
CVD [114] Liver Lipidomics
CVD [118] Liver Transcriptomics
CVD [114] Liver Transcriptomics
CVD [114] Liver Proteomics
CVD [116] Plasma Lipidomics ND
CVD [117] Plasma Lipidomics ↑→ ↓→
CVD [19] Plasma Lipidomics
COPD [113] Lung Lipidomics
COPD [113] Lung Transcriptomics
COPD [113] Lung Proteomics
Atherosclerosis [116] Aorta Plaque size ND
Atherosclerosis [117] Aorta Plaque size
Atherosclerosis [19] Aorta Plaque size
Atherosclerosis [118] Aorta Plaque size ND
Atherosclerosis [29] Aorta Plaque size ND
Atherosclerosis [27] BA Plaque size ↑→ ND
Atherosclerosis [27] Aortic arch Plaque size ↑→ ND
Exposure markers [18] Blood COHb
Exposure markers [18] Urine Nicotine metabolites
Exposure marker [117] Blood COHb
Exposure marker [118] Blood COHb
Exposure marker [117] Urine Nicotine metabolites
Exposure markers [19] Blood COHb
Exposure markers [19] Urine Nicotine metabolites
Inflammation [18] Lung BALF
Inflammation [18] NRE Histopathology
Inflammation [18] Lung Transcriptomics ↑↓ ↓↑
Inflammation [116] Liver Transcriptomics ND
Inflammation [124] Lung BALF ↑→
Inflammation [29] Aorta Transcriptomics ND
Inflammation [127] Lung Transcriptomics ↑↓ ND
Inflammation [127] Lung BALF ND
Inflammation [127] Respiratory Histopathology ND
Inflammation [127] Respiratory Network model ND
Inflammation [113] Lung Lipidomics
Inflammation [19] Urine Inflammatory biomarker
Inflammation [19] Lung BALF
Inflammation [19] NRE Histopathology
Inflammation [19] Lung Histopathology
COPD—emphysema [18] Lung Lung morphometry
COPD—emphysema [19] Lung Lung function
COPD—emphysema [19] Lung Lung morphometry
Inflammation/cell cycle/necroptosis [19] Lung Network model
Inflammation/cell cycle/necroptosis [19] Lung Transcriptomics
Inflammation/cell cycle/necroptosis [19] Lung Proteomics
Inflammation/cell cycle/necroptosis [124] Lung Network model
Inflammation/cell cycle/necroptosis [124] Lung Transcriptomics
Oxidative stress [18] Lung BALF
Oxidative stress [18] NRE Transcriptomics ↑↓ ↓↑
Oxidative stress [114] Liver Transcriptomics
Oxidative stress [114] Liver Proteomics
  1. Arrows indicate increase (upwards), decrease (downwards), no change (to the right), trend to increase (north east), and trend to decrease (south east). Arrows for the cigarette smoke (CS) effect indicate changes compared with unexposed mice, and arrows for the cessation effect indicate differences compared with continued CS exposure
  2. COHb carboxyhemoglobin; BALF bronchoalveolar lavage fluid; CVD cardiovascular disease; NRE nasal respiratory epithelium; COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; BA brachiocephalic artery; ND not done