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Table 1 Functional endpoint categories related to atherogenesis in studies conducted in Apoe−/− mice

From: The Apoe−/− mouse model: a suitable model to study cardiovascular and respiratory diseases in the context of cigarette smoke exposure and harm reduction

Exposure category Exposure route Ref Dyslipidemia Inflammation Thrombosis Oxidative stress Plaque development Vascular function (constriction) Vascular function (relaxation) Vascular remodeling
Motor vehicle emissions Intraperitoneal [128]       ↓→ ↓→  
[129]         
Nasal [130]       
[131]        
Oropharyngeal aspiration [132]      
Whole body inhalation exposure [133]       ↑→   ↑→
[134]   ↑→   ↑→ ↓→ ↑→   ↓↑→
[93]      ↑→  
[135]      
[136]     ↓↑   
[137]   ↑→     
[138]   ↑→   ↑→    ↓→
Environmental air particles Intraperitoneal [139]        
Oropharyngeal aspiration [140]        
Whole body inhalation exposure [141]        
[142]      
[143]         
[144]       
[145]    ↑↑→   
[93]        
[146]      ↑↑  
[147]        
[148]       
[149]        
[150]        
Motor vehicle emissions and environmental air particles Whole body inhalation exposure [151]         
[146]       
Environmental tobacco smoke surrogate (sidestream smoke) Whole body inhalation exposure [80]      ↑→    
[81]        
[85]        
[21]       
[91]       
[152]        
[153]        
[93]      ↑→    
  1. Functional categories related to plaque development were created according to the specific endpoint investigated. This approach facilitated the analysis of dissimilar sets of data. Arrows indicate increase (upwards), decrease (downwards), no change (to the right), trend to increase (north east), and trend to decrease (south east) (Modified from [94])