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Table 1 Clinical characteristics and Differential fatty acid levels and desaturase activities in healthy controls and patients

From: Polymorphisms in FADS1 and FADS2 alter plasma fatty acids and desaturase levels in type 2 diabetic patients with coronary artery disease

Characteristics Healthy controls (n = 253) T2D patients (n = 234) CAD patients (n = 200) T2D&CAD patients (n = 185) p a
Male/Female (%) 60.5/39.5 62/38 55.5/44.5 63.2/36.8 0.412
Age (year) 59.73 ± 10.06 57.74 ± 12.76 59.47 ± 10.53 60.30 ± 9.73 0.282
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 128.19 ± 20.59 130.90 ± 17.73 129.16 ± 18.94 131.87 ± 19.54 0.247
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 78.42 ± 13.75 76.64 ± 10.71 78.51 ± 12.20 78.61 ± 11.78 0.513
Total cholesterol (mmol/l) 4.43 (3.97, 4.91) 4.68 (3.99, 5.31) 4.05 (3.33, 4.64) 4.07 (3.31, 4.99) <0.0001
Triglyceride (mmol/l) 1.01 (0.78, 1.32) 1.82 (1.21, 2.74) 1.26 (0.93, 1.60) 1.37 (1.01, 1.98) <0.0001
HDL-cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.29 (1.12, 1.49) 1.05 (0.90, 1.20) 1.17 (0.99, 1.35) 1.03 (0.87, 1.29) <0.0001
LDL-cholesterol (mmol/l) 2.70 (2.33, 3.05) 2.70 (2.10, 3.21) 2.42 (1.72, 2.89) 2.42 (1.84, 3,12) <0.0001
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l) 4.92 (4.59, 5.33) 8.50 (6.45, 11.73) 5.68 (5.11, 6.29) 6.93 (6.03, 8.16) <0.0001
HbA1c (%) _ 7.70 (6.50, 9.48) _ 6.70 (6.10, 7.30) <0.0001
HbA1c (mmol/mol) _ 60.66 (47.54, 80.11) _ 49.73 (43.17, 56.28) <0.0001
Fatty acids (%)
 Palmitic acid, C16:0 22.41 (21.40, 23.63) 23.61 (21.78, 25.34) 23.17 (21.38, 24.64) 23.40 (21.76, 24.77) <0.0001
 Stearic acid, C18:0 9.33 (8.52, 9.98) 9.14 (7.63, 10.78) 9.16 (8.37, 9.89) 8.96 (8.14, 9.85) 0.048
 Total monounsaturated fatty acid 16.05 (14.14, 18.12) 19.27 (16.93, 21.71) 17.40 (15.47, 19.60) 18.47 (15.99, 20.65) <0.0001
 Palmitoleic acid, C16:1 0.70 (0.52, 0.95) 0.88 (0.42, 1.50) 0.95 (0.66, 1.23) 0.90 (0.59, 1.55) <0.0001
 Oleic acid, C18:1n-9 14.85 (13.10, 16.74) 18.29 (16.06, 20.52) 15.90 (14.29, 17.83) 17.23 (14.75, 19.65) <0.0001
 Total polyunsaturated  n-3 fatty acid 3.65 (2.93, 4.31) 7.07 (4.42, 10.05) 3.40 (2.78, 4.00) 4.22 (3.20,7.25) <0.0001
 α-linolenic acid, C18:3n-3 0.55 (0.35, 0.76) 0.58 (0.13, 1.08) 0.55 (0.34, 0.78) 0.65 (0.34, 0.92) 0.195
 Eicosapentaenoic acid, C20:5n-3 0.21 (0.00, 0.46) 0.87 (0.28, 1.75) 0.17 (0.00, 0.40) 0.18 (0.00, 1.17) <0.0001
 Docosahexaenoic acid, C22:6n-3 2.72 (2.17, 3.38) 4.78 (1.95, 7.40) 2.52 (2.00, 3.12) 3.22 (2.49, 5.01) <0.0001
 Total polyunsaturated n-6 fatty acid 46.32 (43.57, 49.04) 45.66 (42.34, 49.19) 44.37 (41.37, 47.46) 45.08 (41.69, 48.27) <0.0001
 Linoleic acid, C18:2n-6 35.96 (32.94, 39.49) 34.63 (30.50, 40.53) 33.11 (29.66, 36.64) 32.61 (29.36, 36.47) <0.0001
 γ-linolenic acid, C18:3n-6 0.22 (0.05, 0.42) 0.13 (0.00, 0.37) 0.32 (0.10, 0.57) 0.17 (0.00, 0.49) <0.0001
 Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid, C20:3n-6 1.35 (1.07, 1.63) 1.37 (0.16, 2.13) 1.54 (1.18, 2.03) 1.63 (1.03, 2.40) <0.0001
 Arachidonic acid, C20:4n-6 7.98 (6.68, 9.43) 7.59 (3.97, 10.82) 7.92 (6.28, 9.70) 9.18 (6.67, 11.27) <0.0001
Desaturase activity
 C20:4n-6/C20:3n-6 (D5D) 6.22 (4.61, 7.67) 5.11 (3.71, 8.26) 5.23 (3.39, 7.60) 5.07 (3.47, 7.75) 0.051
 C20:4n-6/C18:2n-6 (D6D) 0.22 (0.18, 0.27) 0.22 (0.10, 0.35) 0.24 (0.19, 0.31) 0.28 (0.19, 0.36) <0.0001
 C16:1/C16:0 (D9D-16) 0.03 (0.02, 0.04) 0.04 (0.02, 0.07) 0.04 (0.03, 0.05) 0.04 (0.03, 0.06) 0.002
 C18:1n-9/C18:0(D9D-18) 1.62 (1.39, 1.90) 1.97 (1.58, 2.42) 1.77 (1.49, 2.06) 1.94 (1.67, 2.29) <0.0001
 n-3/n-6 0.08 (0.06, 0.10) 0.16 (0.09, 0.23) 0.08 (0.06, 0.09) 0.10 (0.07, 0.17) <0.0001
  1. a p values derived from K-independent non-parametric analysis