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Table 1 Role of main stem/progenitor cells in the regeneration/repair after acute lung injury

From: Stem/progenitor cells in endogenous repairing responses: new toolbox for the treatment of acute lung injury

Origin Locus Cell type Way of acquisition Main contribution References
Intrapulmonary stem/progenitor cells Trachea, bronchi Basal cell Activation Differentiation toward goblet cells, ciliated cells, mucous cells and serous cells [61]
Trachea Duct cell Activation Differentiation toward goblet cells, ciliated cells, mucous cells, serous cells and myoepithelial cells [62, 63]
Bronchiole Clara cell Activation Differentiation toward ciliated, AT1 and AT2 cells [58, 64, 65, 80]
Bronchiole, bronchioalveolar duct junction Variant Clara cell Activation Differentiation toward cilia cells, Clara cell and PNECs [58, 64, 65]
Bronchioalveolar duct junction Bronchioalveolar stem cell Activation Differentiation toward bronchiolar Clara cells and alveolar cells [72, 98]
Mesenchymal Mesenchymal stem cell, stromal cell Activation Bronchioalveolar stem cells increase, preservation of epithelial permeability, anti- oxidative stress [8385]
Bronchiole, bronchioalveolar duct junction Human lung stem cell Activation Differentiation toward Alveolar and endothelia cells [81]
Alveolus Alveolar type II cells Activation Differentiation toward Alveolar type I cells and BASC [64, 65, 69]
Alveolus AEPC Activation Differentiation toward Alveolar type I and II cells [82]
Extrapulmonary stem/progenitor cells Bone marrow Mesenchymal stem cell Mobilization, isolation Bacteria clearance, anti-inflammation, tissue repair [9]
Epithelial progenitor cell Mobilization, isolation Anti-inflammation, tissue repair [10]
Hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell Mobilization, isolation Anti-inflammation, tissue repair [14, 15]
Placenta Amniotic fluid stem cells Isolation Anti-inflammation, tissue repair [38, 39]
Amnion epithelial cells Isolation Anti-inflammation, tissue repair [40]
Umbilical cord CD34+ progenitor cells Isolation Anti-inflammation, tissue repair [42]
Umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells Isolation Anti-inflammation, tissue repair [41]
Fetal membrane-derived mesenchymal stem cells Isolation Anti-inflammation, tissue repair [37]
Adipose Mesenchymal stem cell Isolation Anti-inflammation through eNOS and eNOS-derived NO, tissue repair [3436]
Embryo Embryonic stem cells Isolation Anti-inflammation, generation of functional airway epithelium [45]
Embryonic stem cell-derived progenitor cells Isolation Anti-inflammation, tissue repair [44]
Blood Mesenchymal stem cell Isolation Anti-inflammation, tissue repair [43]
Epithelial progenitor cell Isolation Anti-inflammation, tissue repair [12]
Hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell Isolation Anti-inflammation, tissue repair [14]
  Engineering stem/progenitor cell iPSCs Isolation and genetic manipulation Anti-inflammation via NF-KB and Src pathway, differentiation toward alveolar epithelial cells [4952]
Modified mesenchymal stem cell Isolation and genetic manipulation Anti-inflammation, tissue repair [53, 54, 56]