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Table 1 Demographics of study groups

From: Transforming growth factor-beta 1 produced by vascular smooth muscle cells predicts fibrosis in the gastrocnemius of patients with peripheral artery disease

  CTRL PAD-II PAD-IV p value
Number of patients 20 25 20 N/A
Mean age (years) 62.1 ± 5.40 64.1 ± 7.80 69.9 ± 9.40* 0.011
Gender (male/female) 19/1 24/1 20/0 0.983
Height (m) 1.75 ± 0.07 1.76 ± 0.06 1.77 ± 0.06 0.576
Weight (kg) 91.0 ± 17.4 87.5 ± 18.8 85.0 ± 21.1 0.598
Body mass index 29.9 ± 6.40 28.2 ± 5.16 28.4 ± 6.61 0.593
Obesitya (%) 45 36 25 0.416
Smoking (%) 50.0 56.0 30.0 0.202
Diabetes Mellitus (%) 25.0 20.0 65.0* 0.004
Dyslipidemia (%) 55.0 80.0 60.0 0.166
Coronary artery disease (%) 20.0 36.0 35.0 0.701
Myocardial infraction (%) 0.00 8.00 0.00 0.192
Hypertension (%) 65.0 84.0 90.0 0.116
Statins Medication (%) 70.0 84.0 65.0 0.317
Renal insufficiencyb (%) 5.00 12.0 20.0 0.352
Ankle Brachial Indexc (minimum–maximum) 1.04 ± 0.11* (0.79–1.20) 0.55 ± 0.22* (0.10–0.95) 0.22 ± 0.13* (0.00–0.44) <0.001
  1. CTRL Control subject, PAD-II PAD patient at Fontaine Stage II, PAD-IV PAD patient at Fontaine Stage IV
  2. * p < 0.05 compared to each of the other two groups by post-hoc Bonferroni adjusted t tests
  3. aObesity: Body mass index >30
  4. bRenal insufficiency: Creatinine clearance <60 ml/min/1.73m2
  5. cABI: data presented as mean ± standard deviation