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Table 1 Demographics and clinical characteristics of participants

From: Betel quid dependence is associated with functional connectivity changes of the anterior cingulate cortex: a resting-state fMRI study

  Age Sex (male/female) Education (years) Monthly income (US $) Duration of placement of BQ in the mouth (min) Dosage of BQ (g/day) Duration of BQ (years) BQDS Alcohol last 30 days (g) SAS SDS
BQD 46.7 ± 9.4 24/9 12.3 ± 2.7 423.5 ± 73.7 7.6 ± 2.4 342 ± 106 20.6 ± 6.9 10 ± 3.4 200.2 ± 34.8 27.2 ± 5.6 28.6 ± 6.6
HC 45.8 ± 9.3 20/12 12.6 ± 2.4 413.1 ± 73.0 N/A N/A N/A N/A 189.0 ± 33.4 28.3 ± 6.1 32.8 ± 7.5
Statistics 0.446 0.777 0.512 0.799      1.025 0.759 2.385
P value 0.657 0.378 0.610 0.427      0.309 0.451 0.020
  1. Unless otherwise indicated, data are means ± SD. The P value for gender distribution in the two groups was obtained by Chi square test. The P value for age, monthly income, education, alcohol last 30 days, SAS, SDS difference between the two groups was obtained by independent-samples t test
  2. N/A not applicable, BQ betel quid, BQD betel quid dependence, HC healthy control, BQDS betel quid dependence scale, SAS self-rating anxiety scale, SDS self-rating depression scale