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Table 3 The potential brain mediators of the relationships between oxidative stress and the different perceptual functions

From: Brain mediators of systemic oxidative stress on perceptual impairments in Parkinson’s disease

Clinical variable Anatomy name Path a Path b a × b   Path c’
pcoef z p pcoef z p pcoef z p pcoef z p
Digit symbol MTG −0.007 −3.97 <0.001 15.55 2.94 0.003 −0.10 −2.82 0.005 −0.11 −2.12 0.034
IPL −0.009 −3.30 <0.001 11.29 2.28 0.023 −0.10 −2.04 0.042 −0.11 −2.20 0.028
HIPP −0.004 −2.49 0.013 18.25 −1.58 0.030 −0.06 −2.03 0.042 −0.15 −2.25 0.025
INS −0.005 −2.84 0.005 24.73 2.38 0.017 −0.12 −2.24 0.025 −0.09 −2.17 0.030
Block design MTG −0.007 −3.40 <0.001 19.21 4.02 <0.001 −0.13 −2.91 0.004 −0.09 −2.67 0.008
HIPP −0.004 −2.46 0.014 16.85 2.53 0.011 −0.06 −2.03 0.042 −0.15 −2.55 0.011
INS −0.005 2.86 0.004 29.32 3.03 0.002 −0.14 −2.47 0.014 −0.07 −2.56 0.011
POI MTG −0.007 −3.64 <0.001 92.59 2.84 0.005 −0.63 −2.74 0.006 −0.71 −2.72 0.007
HIPP −0.004 −2.44 0.015 99.80 2.42 0.015 −0.34 −2.15 0.031 −1.01 −2.71 0.007
INS −0.005 −2.99 0.003 142.70 2.88 0.004 −0.70 −2.39 0.017 −0.65 −2.75 0.006
PIQ MTG −0.007 −3.59 <0.001 82.38 2.60 0.009 −0.56 −2.26 0.024 −0.68 −2.62 −0.009
INS −0.005 −2.96 0.003 139.79 2.83 0.005 −0.68 −2.43 0.015 −0.57 −2.56 0.010
  1. The corresponding statistical results of each path and mediation effect between the oxidative stress (independent variable), perceptual functions (dependent variable), and anatomical regions with significant disease effect (mediators) are described in terms of corresponding path coefficient, z value, and p value. The anatomical regions were considered as potential brain mediators between oxidative stress level and perceptual functions if statistical significance, as indicated by a p of less than 0.05, was found in each of the following three effects in corresponding mediation analysis. (1) Indirect Path a: the relationship between oxidative stress level and the regional gray matter volume; (2) indirect Path b: the relationship between the regional gray matter volume and perceptual functions as determined by controlling the oxidative stress level and (3) Mediation a × b effect. All mediation analyses were conducted using the Mediation toolbox
  2. P coef path coefficient, HIPP hippocampus, INS insula, IPL inferior parietal lobule, MTG middle temporal gyrus, PIQ performance intelligence quotient; POI, perceptual organization index