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Table 1 Analysis of demographic variables, clinical variables, global anatomical measurements, and cognitive assessments between the healthy controls and patients with Parkinson’s disease

From: Brain mediators of systemic oxidative stress on perceptual impairments in Parkinson’s disease

Variable PD group (n = 27) Control group (n = 25) p value
Age (years) 54.59 ± 9.32 50.88 ± 10.51 0.183a
Sex (male/female) 11/16 11/14 1.000b
Education (years) 9.22 ± 4.91 11.76 ± 4.27 0.053a
GMV (l) 0.54 ± 0.06 0.57 ± 0.05 0.58c
WMV (l) 0.54 ± 0.05 0.57 ± 0.05 0.108c
CSFV (l) 0.22 ± 0.03 0.21 ± 0.03 0.412c
TIV (l) 1.29 ± 0.11 1.35 ± 0.11 0.032d*
UPDRS I 3.37 ± 2.53
UPDRS II 10.44 ± 8.06
UPDRS III 23.48 ± 12.64
UPDRS total score 37.15 ± 21.69
Modified HY-stagee 1.98 ± 1.05
SE-ADLf 85.19 ± 17.18
MMSE 25.04 ± 4.28   
PIQ 85.78 ± 16.93 104.52 ± 20.16 0.002d*
 Perceptual organization index 85.74 ± 17.75 101.52 ± 17.38 0.004d*
  Picture completion 7.33 ± 3.14 10.52 ± 4.44 0.007d*
  Block design 7.07 ± 3.23 9.96 ± 2.88 0.002d*
  Matrix reasoning 8.07 ± 3.82 10.60 ± 3.19 0.020d*
 Processing speed index
  Digit symbol 6.81 ± 3.08 10.24 ± 2.30 <0.001d*
TBARS (μM) 14.5 ± 3.95 9.10 ± 2.50 <0.001*
Thiol (μM) 1.40 ± 0.50 1.50 ± 0.30 0.191
  1. Means and standard deviations of raw scores for the healthy control group and the patients with Parkinson’s disease. For each variable, the p value indicates the significance level of the appropriate statistical test comparing the raw scores of the control group and the patients with Parkinson’s disease
  2. CSFV cerebrospinal fluid volume, GMV gray matter volume, MMSE mini–mental state examination, Modified H&Y stage modified Hoehn and Yahr stages, PD Parkinson’s disease, PIQ performance intelligence quotient, SE-ADL Schwab and England activities of daily living scale, TBARS thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TIV total intracranial volume, UPDRS Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale, WMV white matter volume
  3. aTwo sample unpaired t test
  4. bChi square test
  5. cAnalysis of covariance test which adjusted for age, sex, education, and TIV
  6. dAnalysis of covariance test which adjusted for age, sex, and education
  7. eFor Modified HY-stage, the maximum stage is 5
  8. fFor the SE-ADL, the minimum score is 0, suggesting vegetative functions; the maximum score is 100, suggesting completely independent
  9. * P value < 0.05