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Table 2 Biological functions of the m6A demethylase FTO

From: Milk: an epigenetic amplifier of FTO-mediated transcription? Implications for Western diseases

Epigenetic FTO functions Transcriptional effects References
FTO-catalyzed demethylation of m6A in
mRNAs
Increased transcription and mRNA stability, modification of m6A-dependent alternative splicing and miRNA binding to target mRNAs [125127, 138143]
FTO over-expression Generation of the pro-adipogenic short isoform of RUNX1T1 promoting MCE increasing adipocyte numbers [145, 146]
Increased FTO mRNA Reduction of ghrelin mRNA m6A methylation resulting in increased ghrelin mRNA abundance [154]
FTO-deficient MEFs Reduced protein expression of the mTORC1 activator leucyl-tRNA synthetase [110]
Increased FTO expression Association of FTO CpG hypomethylation in T2DM with recuded m6A levels in mRNA of T2DM patients [31, 32, 265]
FTO over-expression Increased expression of C/EBPβ mRNA, the key transcription factor of gluconeogenesis and adipogenesis [266, 267]
FTO over-expression Loss of stem cell self-renewal capability [207]
FTO over-expression Increased expression of PRL mRNA enhancing PIP expression involved in PC and BC progression [185187]
FTO over-expression Interaction with APO ϵ4, increasing the risk of AD [321]