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Table 1 Biological impacts of FTO from fetal to adult life

From: Milk: an epigenetic amplifier of FTO-mediated transcription? Implications for Western diseases

FTO expression Biological alterations References
Increased placental FTO expression Increased fetal and birth weight [226228]
Absent FTO expression (fused toes mutant mice) Murine embryos die at midgestation [34, 35]
Fto-null mice Postnatal growth retardation, reduced adipose tissue and lean body mass, shorter body length, lower bone mineral density, lower serum IGF-1 [36, 37]
Fto deletion in murine CNS Postnatal growth retardation [37]
SNPs with higher FTO expression Higher energy intake, increased appetite, higher dietary protein intake [40, 4349, 53]
Hypothalamic FTO expression Regulation of hunger/satiation, energy intake and circadian rhythm [5052]
Early hypothalamic FTO over-expression in the rat Postweaning hyperphagia [155]
Fto over-expression in mice Increase in body and fat mass, glucose intolerance during high-fat diet, metabolic syndrome [41, 213]
FTO over-expression Increased gluconeogenesis [266]
FTO over-expression Increased adipogenesis, reduced thermogenesis of preadipocytes, insulin resistance [146, 249, 251, 268]
FTO deficiency in adipocytes Increased expression of UCP-1 (thermogenin), induction of BAT phenotype with increased thermogenesis [252]
Obesigenic FTO variants Increased BMI in children at 8 yrs, higher risk of early menarche at 12 yrs [234, 244]
Obesigenic FTO variants Increased BMI and obesity in adults [819]
Obesigenic FTO variants Increased risk of T2DM in adults [2028]
FTO rs9939609 A-allele Increased risk of coronary heart disease [214, 215]
Obesigenic FTO variants Increased risk of cancer, especially PCa and BCa [276, 277, 291298]
Obesigenic FTO SNPs Reduction in frontal lobe volume of the brain, impaired verbal fluency, increased risk of AD [319323]
FTO rs9939609 SNP Reduced leucocyte telomere length, accelerated aging [342]