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Table 1 Demographic profiles of the patients infected with P. falciparum malaria and controls

From: Evidence of IL-17, IP-10, and IL-10 involvement in multiple-organ dysfunction and IL-17 pathway in acute renal failure associated to Plasmodium falciparum malaria

Groups Criterion No. of patients (%) Median age (range) Sex (M/F)
EC Healthy subjects from malaria-endemic areas 21 (9.46) 29 (17–52) 20/1
SEPT Severe sepsis patients 10 (4.5) 39 (24–70) 5/5
ENC Viral encephalitis patients 9 (4.06) 35 (13–72) 7/2
MM Patients having fever without complications 37 (16.67) 28 (15–62) 25/12
SNCM Patients without cerebral involvement, but with either: severe anemiaa or jaundiceb, or ARFc, or acute respiratory distressd, or shocke or haemoglobinuria 53 (23.87) 34 (15–65) 36/17
MOD Patients showing involvement of two or more organs: CNS, respiratory distress, ARF, or hepatic dysfunctionf 9 (4.06) 28 (16–55) 8/1
CM Patients with fever and altered sensorium, unarousable coma with Glasgow Coma Scale of ≤10g 42 (18.91) 28 (15–65) 32/10
CM-MOD CM patients with MOD 41 (18.47) 35 (15–70) 31/10
Total   222 (100 %) 30 (13–72) 164/58
  1. EC endemic control, SEPT septicemia, ENC encephalitis, MM mild malaria, SNCM severe non-cerebral malaria, MOD multiple organ dysfunction, CM cerebral malaria, CM-MOD cerebral malaria with multiple organ dysfunction, ARF acute renal failure
  2. aHaemoglobin ≤ 5 g/dl
  3. bSerum bilirubin ≥ 3 mg/dl
  4. cSerum creatinin ≥ 3 mg/dl
  5. dPaO2/FIO2 ≤ 200
  6. eSystolic BP ≤ 80 mmHg
  7. fALT/AST ≥3 times of normal, prolonged prothrombin time, and albuminaemia
  8. gCategorized as CM after excluding other causes of encephalopathy, such as encephalitis, meningitis, and metabolic encephalopathy, by biochemical investigations of CSF