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Table 1 Parental tobacco smoking and offspring health outcomes

From: Short and long term health effects of parental tobacco smoking during pregnancy and lactation: a descriptive review

Parental tobacco smoking Health outcomes
  Short-term Long-term
During pregnancy
Maternal smoking Preterm birthb
Fetal growth restrictionb
Low birth weightb
Altered brain structure and function in newbornsb
Lower fetal heart rate variabilityb
Reduced alveolarizationb
Increased risk of overweight and obesitya,b
Higher blood pressurea,b
Increased risk of wheezing, asthma, airway hyperresponsiveness, impaired lung function, bronchitisb
Paternal/environmental smoking Low birth weightb Further studies are needed
During lactation
Maternal smoking Increased risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)b
Neurodevelopmental and behavioral disordersb
Sleep disruptionb
Increased risk of overweight and obesitya,b
Impaired glucose homeostasisa
Increased risk of respiratory allergy (asthma and rhinitis)a,b
  1. aProved in vitro and/or in animals
  2. bHypothesized in humans