Reverse signaling and tmTNF crosslinking-induced cytokine secretion is higher in responders to TNF inhibitors. a Bar graph shows concentrations of tmTNF crosslinking-induced secretion of the indicated cytokines (black bars) and concentrations found in control cultures containing an irrelevant, plate-bound antibody (grey bars, n = 18). Levels of significance: *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001. b Box plots depict the concentrations of the tmTNF crosslinking-induced TNF secretion in patients with a good response according to the EULAR response criteria (responder, n = 4) compared to patients achieving only a moderate or no response (non-responder, n = 14). c Scatterplot depicts correlation of concentrations of reverse signaling-induced IL-8 with the decrease in DAS28 (ΔDAS28) after 4 weeks of therapy. IL-8 was measured by ELISA (n = 18). d Bar graph depicts reverse signaling-induced IL-8 concentrations in patients with any EULAR response (grey bar, n = 15) compared to those with no response at all (black bar, n = 3) at the given time points. Levels of significance: *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001.