Representative scheme of the action of taurine in skeletal muscle fiber. It is shown the TauT carrier which works to maintain high intracellular taurine level, along with the actions that taurine exerts on membrane channels, sarcoplasmic reticulum, mitocondria and possibly gene expression. Putative binding sites for taurine are shown (1) on ClC-1 channel and (2) as local anesthetic drug binding site. Arrows indicate a general stimulating action while dotted lines are for inhibitory effects or yet undefined pathways. A pathway for taurine efflux under stress conditions (ischemia, osmotic stress, etc.) likely via the volume-sensitive organic anion channel (VSOAC) is also shown.