Aortic lumen cross-sectional area measurement. High resolution ultrasound (HRUS) was used to measure the cross-sectional area for the aortas in 6–8 animals from each animal group by HRUS with representative captured images from the analysis shown just above. Note that the AAV/hFOX3P-HCD animals had a larger cross sectional luminal area than the AAV/Neo-HCD animals. Also note that the AAV/hFOX3P-HCD and the ND groups were statistically the same. P values of <0.05 refer to the student t test, are indicated by a “asterisk”, and also indicate statistical significance.