Analysis of VACV infections in murine GL261, microglial BV-2 and astrocytic IMA2.1 cells in cell culture. a–c Viral replication in GL261, BV-2 and IMA2.1 cells infected with LIVP 1.1.1 at an MOI of 0.1 was analyzed by standard plaque assay. The red line separates active replication from no replication. d–f MTT assay was performed to detect the percentage of surviving cells after infection with LIVP 1.1.1 (MOI 1.0). g BV-2 and GL261 cells were cultured as direct co-cultures for 24 h in various concentrations. For standard plaque assay cells were infected at an MOI of 0.1 in triplicate. h Viral titers were related to the infection medium for a better comparison and illustrated as ratio (total virus titer/infection medium). Experiments were repeated in independent experiments. Two-sided t test with unequal variances was used for statistics (*p < 0.05).