Recruitment and infiltration of microglia and astrocytes into murine gliomas. a, b Recruitment of microglia and astrocytes 1 and 3 days after intracranial injection of GLV-2b372 into naïve Foxn1nu/nu mice stained with Hoechst (blue) to detect cell nuclei, IB4 (green) to stain microglia and GFAP to stain astrocytes (green). Virus was detected by expression of TurboFP635 (red). The VACV injection sites are marked by white arrows in the overlays. Immunohistochemical staining and analysis of GL261 gliomas in C57BL/6 mice untreated (w/o; c, f), injected intratumorally with PBS (d, g) or LIVP 1.1.1 (5 × 106 pfu) (e, h) at 1 dpi. Sections were stained for cell nuclei (blue), microglia (Iba-1+, red) and astrocytes (GFAP+, green). i, j Quantitative analysis of microglia and astrocytes 1 and 7 dpi (n = 3; analyzed in duplicate). Fluorescence intensity and tumor area were measured with ImageJ and calculated as ratio: Iba-1 or GFAP/tumor area. For box plot diagrams a template from Vertex42 LLC has been used.