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Table 2 Baseline characteristics by tertiles of flavonoid intake (the first the lower; the third, the higher)

From: Dietary flavonoid intake and cardiovascular risk: a population-based cohort study

  First tertile   Second tertile   Third tertile   P
Number 552   551   555   
Median intake (mg/day) 89.0   251.4   532.3   
Current smoking (%) 28.4   25.7   17.5   <0.001
Males (%) 47.1   46.8   47.2   0.99
Living in a rural area (%) 36.8   36.8   47.4   <0.001
Alcohol    
 Alcohol abstainers (%) 54.9   41.0   35.7   
 Moderate alcohol drinking (%) 31.5   41.4   38.6   
 Heavy alcohol drinking (%) 13.6   17.6   25.8   <0.001
Education    
 Primary school (%) 78.6   69.9   75.3   
 Secondary school (%) 14.5   21.8   17.5   
 University (%) 6.9   8.4   7.2   0.02
 History of hypertension (%) 56.5   47.0   50.5   0.006
 History of diabetes mellitus (%) 8.5   4.0   4.5   0.002
 History of CV disease (%) 6.5   5.3   5.1   0.52
 Estrogen use (%) 4.2   5.1   5.1   0.72
 Supplements use (%) 3.3   3.3   3.4   0.98
 Statin use (%) 3.8   3.8   4.7   0.70
 Aspirin use (%) 6.0   6.0   4.1   0.29
  Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD  
METS (h/week) 20.5 9.4 21.7 9.5 21.9 9.6 0.04
Age (years) 54.8 5.8 54.3 5.5 54.6 5.5 0.37
BMI (kg/m2) 27.2 5.3 26.3 4.3 26.3 4.3 <0.001
Waist circumference (cm) 92.9 13.0 90.2 12.4 90.9 13.4 0.002
Total caloric intake (kcal/day) 1,917.0 722.7 2,142.7 583.2 2,149.3 667.1 <0.001
CHO intake (% total kcal) 47.6 7.6 48.4 6.8 49.5 6.8 <0.001
Total fat intake (kcal/day) 35.6 6.1 35.2 5.9 34.7 5.7 0.03
Saturated fat (% total kcal) 12.3 3.4 12.1 2.8 11.6 3.0 0.001
Polyunsaturated fat (% total kcal) 4.3 1.3 4.3 1.6 4.3 1.4 0.95
Fiber intake (g/day) 16.5 7.3 22.4 8.3 23.3 10.2 <0.001
Beta-carotene (µg/day) 2,768.7 1,658.9 3,571.5 1,840.2 3,914.8 2,292.4 <0.001
Vitamin C (mg/day) 134.9 44.5 142.4 55.0 142.8 49.4 0.01
Vitamin E (mg/day) 8.1 3.0 8.1 2.3 8.2 2.6 0.62
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 135.4 16.6 132.3 15.0 133.3 16.0 0.007
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 84.3 9.1 82.6 9.2 82.9 9.6 0.005
Fasting glucose (mg/dl) 109.0 38.7 102.2 24.3 103.5 26.6 <0.001
Fasting insulin 9.3 6.1 8.3 3.9 8.2 4.4 <0.001*
Total cholesterol 217.9 39.5 215.2 40.0 217.7 42.2 0.46
HDL cholesterol 57.9 12.5 60.9 13.1 62.4 14.1 <0.001
Triglycerides 149.1 82.9 131.7 99.9 137.0 92.4 <0.001*
CRP (mg/l) 3.3 7.0 2.4 4.7 2.3 5.2 <0.001*
Uric acid 3.4 1.0 3.3 1.1 3.3 1.0 0.14
CV risk score 12.6 8.3 10.6 6.8 10.5 7.1 <0.001
  1. CHO carbohydrates, CRP C-reactive protein, CV cardiovascular.
  2. *Kruskall–Wallis test for not-normally distributed variables.