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Table 2 ΔCt values of the systemic expression of genes important for immunity, wound healing and barrier function in subjects (N = 93) stratified by exposure to N-BP and the occurrence of N-BP-associated osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ)

From: Systemic immunity shapes the oral microbiome and susceptibility to bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the jaw

  Controls (n = 26) Oral N-BP (n = 30) i.v. N-BP* (n = 31) ONJ (n = 6) p value
Cytokines
 RANK a 0.95 ± 0.09 0.95 ± 0.03 0.94 ± 0.06 1.0 ± 0.13* 0.026
 RANKL a 1.0 ± 0.08 0.98 ± 0.04^ 0.97 ± 0.05^^ 1.1 ± 0.1 0.007
 TNFA 8.1 ± 1.4 7.6 ± 1.3 7.5 ± 1.8 10.2 ± 1.7 0.001
 IL17 12.6 ± 1.6 13.4 ± 0.97 12.8 ± 1.1 13.3 ± 3.0 0.129
 IFNG 13.8 ± 4.5 14.8 ± 3.9 15.5 ± 3.0 11.9 ± 1.3 0.109
 IL1B 10.8 ± 1.4 10.7 ± 1.1 10.7 ± 0.96 10.5 ± 1.1 0.942
Growth and wound healing factors
 FGF9 11.3 ± 1.8 10.7 ± 0.8 10.1 ± 1.1*** 12.9 ± 0.9* <0.001
 GMCSF 14.7 ± 1.6 14.2 ± 1.1 14.0 ± 1.3 16.4 ± 1.7* 0.001
 CTGF a 0.86 ± 0.14 0.79 ± 0.10 0.80 ± 0.11 0.93 ± 0.14 0.013
 MMP7 a 0.86 ± 0.08 0.85 ± 0.05 0.84 ± 0.08^ 0.93 ± 0.16 0.040
 MMP9 a 0.96 ± 0.07 0.95 ± 0.10 0.96 ± 0.09 0.92 ± 0.10 0.611
Response to challenge (endogenous or exogenous)
 AHR 2 0.93 ± 0.06 0.90 ± 0.03 0.89 ± 0.05* 1.0 ± 0.10** <0.001
  1. ΔCt values decrease with increased gene expression; lower values correspond to greater gene expression and higher values to lower gene expression.
  2. Tukey HSD post hoc test: * significantly different from controls, p < 0.05; ** significantly different from controls, p < 0.01; *** significantly different from controls, p < 0.005; ^ significantly different from ONJ, p < 0.05; ^^ significantly different from ONJ, p < 0.01. The differences between the N-BP treatment groups and ONJ are only shown for factors where there was no significant difference with the control group. The greatest differences were observed between N-BP treated groups without a history of ONJ and those with ONJ.
  3. i.v. intravenous.
  4. aData are log10 transformed.