Long-term HF–HC–HSD results in hepatic inflammation. Representative H&E (a) slides of chow and HFD fed mice are shown at each time point. Histology scoring was performed on tissue sections at 8, 27 and 49 weeks (b). MCP-1 levels in the liver were evaluated at both the c mRNA and d protein level. Liver TNFα mRNA was evaluated (e). We also looked at IL-1β mRNA in the liver (f) and IL-1β protein levels in the serum (g). IL-1β was undetectable in the serum at 8 and 27 weeks. Electrophoretic mobility assay was performed from nuclear extracts for NFκB at 8,27 and 49 weeks compared to control chow diet (h). *p < 0.01, **p = 0.02, %p = 0.05 versus chow fed controls, n = 6–12/group.