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Table 2 Summary of measured glycocalyx components, catecholamines and ECIS resistance

From: Endothelial glycocalyx shedding and vascular permeability in severely injured trauma patients

  Healthy controls (N = 5) Normal COP (N = 11) Low COP (N = 11) p-value
Plasma COP (mmHg) 21.2 (19.1, 21.3) 21.6 (16.2, 21.9) 12.4 (10.7, 13.9)a,b <0.001
Chondroitin sulfate (U/L) 22.9 (22.5, 23.3) 32.3 (31.3, 33.7)a 32.7 (27.6, 33.9)a 0.003
Heparan sulfate (ng/ml) 133.9 (130.5, 138.3) 180.0 (176.4, 185.9)a 176.7 (151.5, 185.8)a 0.003
Hyaluronic acid (ng/ml) 627.6 (484.1, 753.1) 93.5 (49.0, 885.4) 380.9 (216.6, 682.4)a,b 0.035
Syndecan-1 (ng/ml) 31.6 ± 15.3* 34.6 (19.3, 43.1) 221.7 (88.3, 477.4)a,b <0.001
Adrenaline (ng/ml) 72.1 ± 99.2 90.5 (58.7, 226.9) 805.8 (659.3, 4319.3)a,b 0.014
Noradrenaline (ng/ml) 282 ± 454.7 739.8 (189.5, 1006.2) 987.1 (352.3, 1187.4) 0.245
TEER (Ωcm 2 ) 1066.3 (1057.8, 1074.8) 1101.6 (1089.6, 1115.5) 1067.3b (1043.7, 1096.4) 0.016
Normalized TEER 1.30 (1.29, 1.31) 1.35 (1.33, 1.38) 1.31 (1.27, 1.33) 0.016
  1. Median and IQR values are reported for each group. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to assess differences between groups (p-values shown). Multiple comparisons were also made: first comparing trauma patients to healthy controls and then comparing Low COP to Normal COP; aindicates significant difference from healthy controls, bindicates significant difference between Low and Normal COP groups (p < 0.05).
  2. *Reference value for syndecan-1 levels in healthy volunteers was provided by Abcam.
  3. Adrenaline and noradrenaline healthy control values were obtained from Ostrowski et al. 2013 [16].