HOTTIP knockdown inhibits cell growth and cell cycle in PDAC cells. (A) The efficiency of HOTTIP silencing in short hairpin RNA-stably transduced PDAC cell lines. Relative gene expression was determined using the comparative delta-delta CT method (2-∆∆Ct). (B) (C) MIA PaCa-2 and SW1990 cells were infected with control shRNA or an shRNA against HOTTIP as indicated. Cell viability was determined at the indicated time points after transfection using CCK-8 assays. (D) (E) MIA PaCa-2 and SW1990 cells were tansduced with control shRNA or an shRNA against HOTTIP as indicated. The cell-cycle distribution was assessed following transduction by flow cytometry. Data represent the mean ± s.d. from three independent experiments. **p < 0.01, Student’s t-test.