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Table 3 Effect of CLE on plasma insulin, TNF-α, IL-6, FFA, TG, TC, and HOMA-IR in db/db mice

From: Caulerpa lentillifera extract ameliorates insulin resistance and regulates glucose metabolism in C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice via PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in myocytes

Groups Insulin (pmol/mL) HOMA-IR (mM × mU/mL) TNF-α (pg/mL) IL-6 (pg/mL) FFA (mmol/L) TG (mmol/L) TC (mmol/L)
Normal 16.7 ± 2.7 0.7 ± 0.1 5.0 ± 0.5 25.4 ± 5. 9 0.59 ± 0.08 67.6 ± 7.7 112.2 ± 9.5
Control 121.2 ± 7.8## 22.4 ± 2.4## 25.0 ± 3.0## 100.4 ± 6.3## 1.61 ± 0.21## 185.7 ± 19.8## 229.5 ± 15.2##
CLE-250 101.9 ± 8.8 15.1 ± 0.9** 19.8 ± 3.6 80.4 ± 6.8 1.40 ± 0.13 140.6 ± 14.6* 191.9 ± 17.1
CLE-500 92.3 ± 7.4* 12.5 ± 1.1** 15.3 ± 2.1* 70.4 ± 7.0* 1.10 ± 0.15* 129.5 ± 16.3* 173.3 ± 14.4*
RSG-10 75.6 ± 10.0** 4.0 ± 0.5** 13.0 ± 2.3** 55.8 ± 15.0** 1.00 ± 0.07** 111.9 ± 14.9** 155.2 ± 12.0**
  1. Each value represents the mean ± SE, n = 7 mice. ## p < 0.01, control group versus normal group; * p < 0.05 and ** p < 0.01, control group versus sample treated groups. CLE-250, db/db mice treated with C. lentillifera extract at 250 mg/kg body weight, CLE-500, db/db mice treated with C. lentillifera extract at 500 mg/kg body weight, RSG-10, db/db mice treated with rosiglitazone at 10 mg/kg body weight.