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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of study subjects (N = 342)

From: Role of SLMAP genetic variants in susceptibility of diabetes and diabetic retinopathy in Qatari population

Characteristics Non diabetic controls (NDC) (N = 104) T2DM patients without DR (DNR) (N = 160) P value T2DM patients with DR (N = 78) P value P value
NDC vs DNR NDC vs DR DNR vs DR
Mean Age (Yrs ± SD) 46.81 ± 10.32 55.64 ± 10.23 4.702 ×10 −10 57.86 ± 8.67 1.403 ×10 −11 0.101
Gender: Males 44 (42.3%) 58 (36.3%) 0.3252 36 (46.2%) 0.6073 >0.05
Gender: Females 60 (57.7%) 102 (63.8%) 42 (53.8%)
Mean Glucose levels (mmole/lit) ± SD 5.36 ± 0.97 10.55 ± 6.68 2.5×10 −8 9.92 ± 4.23 1.2 × 10 −12 0.491
BMI (mean) 30.41 ± 6.70 34.08 ± 6.99 5.3 × 10 −5 33.92 ± 6.53 0.001 0.867
Creatinine level (micromole/lit) ± SD 72.44 ± 36.81 69.30 ± 28.55 0.529 81.5 ± 45.27 0.236 0.025
Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) mean% ± SD (mmol/mol) 5.63 ± 0.42 (38) 8.24 ± 1.72 (67) 5.2 × 10 −9 8.82 ± 1.83 (73) 4.39 × 10 −10 0.032
Total Cholesterol (mmol/lit) mean ± SD 5.07 ± 0.87 4.88 ± 0.99 0.253 4.62 ± 1.08 0.022 0.105
HDL (mmol/lit) mean ± SD 1.40 ± 0.34 1.22 ± 0.34 0.003 1.21 ± 0.34 0.008 0.930
LDL (mmol/lit) mean ± SD 3.11 ± 0.77 2.95 ± 0.94 0.299 2.68 ± 1.04 0.021 0.085
HDL/LDL ratio (mean ± SD) 0.48 ± 0.18 0.45 ± 0.19 0.457 0.55 ± 0.33 0.186 0.015
Triglycerides (mmol/lit) mean ± SD 1.24 ± 0.56 1.77 ± 1.23 0.006 1.62 ± 0.75 0.005 0.394
Blood Urea Nitrogen (mmol/lit) mean ± SD 5.14 ± 2.42 5.24 ± 2.54 0.793 6.97 ± 4.49 0.007 0.001
DR subtypes: No DR: BDR/NPDR: PDR:DME 104:0:0:0 160:0:0:0 NA 0:19(24.4%):10(12.8%):49(62.8%) NA NA
Presence of 1° Family history of diabetes 4/109 (3.67%) 45/160 (28.4%) 1.86 × 10 −6 19/78 (24.4%) 0.0002 0.641
Usage of Hypoglycemics 0 136 (85.0%) NA 63 (80.8%) NA 0.457
Usage of Insulin 0 66 (41.3%) NA 56 (71.8%) NA 9.36 × 10 −6
Fasting plasma glucose ≥7 mM   60 (37.5%) NA 23 (29.5%) NA 0.248
Gestational diabetes in females (n;%) 7 (11.7%)/60 48 (47.06%)/102 0.00011 22 (52.4%)/42 0.00023 0.714
Diabetes occurrence after pregnancy 0/65 28 (27.5%)/102 NA 14 (33.3%)/42 NA 0.546
  1. NDC = Non diabetic controls; T2DM = Type 2 Diabetes mellitus; DNR = Diabetic non-retinopathy; DR = Diabetic retinopathy; NPDR = Non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy; PDR = Proliferative diabetic retinopathy; BDR = Background diabetic retinopathy; DME = Diabetic macular edema; NA = not applicable; significant values shown in bold.