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Table 4 Associations between breakfast eating frequency and health-promoting lifestyle

From: Associations between breakfast eating habits and health-promoting lifestyle, suboptimal health status in Southern China: a population based, cross sectional study

Dependent variables Breakfast eating habits
Scarcely Sometimes
Ba OR (95% CI) p-value Ba OR (95% CI) p-value
Health-promoting lifestyle       
  Poor 4.558 95.415 (58.489-155.654) 0.000 2.473 11.855 (8.839-15.900) 0.000
  General 3.095 22.077 (13.92-35.004) 0.000 1.914 6.781 (5.375-8.555) 0.000
  Good 1.692 5.430 (3.410-8.645) 0.000 1.235 3.438 (2.720-4.345) 0.000
  Excellent Reference Reference
Self-realization       
  Poor 2.443 11.504 (9.371-14.122) 0.000 1.098 2.999 (2.424-3.711) 0.000
  General 1.624 5.071 (4.505-5.5.708) 0.000 1.067 2.905 (2.644-3.193) 0.000
  Good 0.696 2.006 (1.787-2.251) 0.000 0.714 2.042 (1.873-2.225) 0.000
  Excellent Reference Reference
Health responsibility       
  Poor 2.285 9.828 (6.072-15.909) 0.000 1.495 4.458 (3.296-6.030) 0.000
  General 1.943 6.979 (4.316-11.285) 0.000 1.376 3.959 (2.933-5.344) 0.000
  Good 1.393 4.025 (2.452-6.608) 0.000 1.270 3.562 (2.609-4.862) 0.000
  Excellent Reference Reference
Sports and exercise       
  Poor 1.876 6.526 (5.233-8.139) 0.000 1.331 3.785 (3.189-4.493) 0.000
  General 1.516 4.555 (3.673-5.649) 0.000 1.240 3.457 (2.933-4.075) 0.000
  Good 0.636 1.890 (1.504-2.374) 0.000 0.902 2.464 (2.078-2.924) 0.000
  Excellent Reference Reference
Nutrition       
  Poor 5.263 193.085 (90.922-410.041) 0.000 2.671 14.458 (10.797-19.361) 0.000
  General 3.860 47.448 (22.475-100.170) 0.000 2.254 9.522 (7.254-12.497) 0.000
  Good 2.038 7.677 (3.614-16.307) 0.000 1.385 3.994 (3.033-5.259) 0.000
  Excellent Reference Reference
Interpersonal relationship       
  Poor 3.532 34.195 (25.824-45.280) 0.000 1.956 7.070 (5.297-9.436) 0.000
  General 1.952 7.041 (6.022-8.233) 0.000 1.471 4.353 (3.864-4.903) 0.000
  Good 0.874 2.397 (2.052-2.799) 0.000 1.018 2.768 (2.471-3.100) 0.000
  Excellent Reference Reference
Stress management       
  Poor 3.507 33.339 (26.0259-42.710) 0.000 1.723 5.600 (4.363-7.187) 0.000
  General 2.285 9.826 (8.353-11.559) 0.000 1.580 4.857 (4.320-5.460) 0.000
  Good 1.069 2.914 (2.476-3.429) 0.000 1.127 3.086 (2.758-3.453) 0.000
  Excellent Reference Reference
  1. Regressions conducted by iteratively regressing one health-promoting lifestyle on breakfast eating habits.
  2. aUnstandardized regression coefficients.
  3. The model is adjusted for demographic variables include age, gender, BMI, married status, education level, occupation, drinking, and smoking.