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Table 3 Breakfast eating frequency compared with health-promoting lifestyle and health status using one-way ANOVA

From: Associations between breakfast eating habits and health-promoting lifestyle, suboptimal health status in Southern China: a population based, cross sectional study

  Breakfast eating frequency One-way ANOVA
  Group 1: scarcely (n = 4,738) Group 2: sometimes (n = 7,285) Group 3: always (n = 12,136) F value P-value Multiple comparisons
Health-promoting lifestyle       
Self-realization 22.36 (5.36) 24.16 (4.69) 26.02 (5.09) 969.296 0.000 G1 <G2 <G3**
Health responsibility 14.88 (5.49) 15.96 (5.79) 16.94 (6.35) 211.507 0.000 G1 <G2 <G3**
Sports and exercise 15.24 (4.27) 16.39 (4.33) 17.51 (5.07) 425.692 0.000 G1 <G2 <G3**
Nutrition 15.42 (3.35) 17.75 (3.27) 19.89 (3.86) 2791.141 0.000 G1 <G2 <G3**
Interpersonal relationship 21.30 (4.61) 23.19 (3.94) 25.12 (4.48) 1408.129 0.000 G1 <G2 <G3**
Stress management 18.28 (3.92) 20.13 (3.48) 21.90 (4.12) 1563.43 0.000 G1 <G2 <G3**
Total score 110.98 (19.90) 121.25 (18.68) 131.10 (21.84) 1738.884 0.000 G1 <G2 <G3**
Health status       
Health (n = 4,533) 79.60 (5.65) 79.60 (5.37) 81.15 (6.01) 38.627 0.000 G1 <G2 <G3**
SHS (n = 11,121) 62.60 (8.82) 64.29 (7.85) 66.08 (7.41) 171.653 0.000 G1 <G2 <G3**
Disease (n = 8,505) 59.89 (10.93) 63.06 (10.22) 65.60 (10.52) 175.604 0.000 G1 <G2 <G3**
Total score 63.78 (10.98) 66.46 (10.26) 69.30 (10.64) 502.081 0.000 G1 <G2 <G3**
  1. Data presented as mean (SD). ANOVA indicates analysis of variance. Bonferroni was used in the multiple comparisons.
  2. ** P <0.001 (Significant after Bonferroni correction for post-hoc analysis).