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Table 1 Expression of AM and AM receptors in tumours and their role on disease progression

From: Adrenomedullin and tumour microenvironment

Cancer type AM in plasma* AM expression Receptor expression DP** References
Breast carcinoma presence Prot   lymph node metastasis [138],[144]
Bladder urothelial cell carcinoma   >mRNA/Prot    [120]
Chromophobe renal carcinoma   >mRNA    [121]
<Prot
Clear-cell renal carcinoma   >mRNA CLR and RAMP2   [118],[121]
Prot
Colorectal carcinoma   >mRNA >CLR, RAMP2, RAMP3 progression [119],[147],[148]
>Prot
Midgut tumour >    progression [108]
Anaplastic astrocytoma   <mRNA    [128],[131]
Glioma   >mRNA   progression [127]
Glioblastoma   >mRNA CLR, RAMP2 and RAMP3   [121],[128],[131]
Hepatocellular carcinoma   >mRNA   invasion and progression [132],[133]
>Prot
Intraocular or orbital tumours   >mRNA    [139]
Leiomyoma   >Prot    [126]
ganglioneuroblastoma   >Prot    [129]
Neuroblastoma   >mRNA   differentiation [129],[143]
>Prot
Bronchial neuroendocrine tumour >    progression [108]
Small cell lung carcinoma   <mRNA    [134],[141]
Non-small cell lung carcinoma   mRNA immunoreactivity was essentially weak    [134],[141]
Squamous cell carcinoma of the lungs   <mRNA    [134],[141]
Adenocarcinoma of the lung   mRNA    [134],[141]
Osteosarcoma > >mRNA / Prot   metastasis [109]
Ovarian carcinoma   > mRNA / Prot   over-all survival [123],[124],[142]
Positive Prognostic Factor [149]
Endometrial carcinoma   >mRNA   progression [125],[150]
<Prot
Pancreatic adenocarcinoma > >AM &CLR mRNA / Prot CLR, RAMP1 and RAMP2   [110],[116],[122],[151]
Pancreatic insulinoma > >Prot    [110],[111]
Adrenocortical tumours > mRNA    [113],[135],[136]
Prot no detected
Pheochromocytoma > mRNA CLR, RAMP1, RAMP2 and RAMP3   [114],[117],[129],[135]–[137],[152]
>Prot
Pituytary adenomas > >Prot   progression [112],[130],[136],[145]
Plexiform neurofibroma >    biomarker of transformation [115]
Somatotropinoma   >mRNA    Knerr et al., [131])
Prolactinoma   mRNA
meningiomas   mRNA
Prostate   mRNA   high Gleason scores [146],[153]
adenocarcinoma   Prot
Skin carcinomas   Prot > CLR, RAMP2, and RAMP3   [78],[140]
  1. *>:higher plasma AM concentration in cancer patients than in healthy controls.
  2. **DP: Correlation of AM with disease progression.
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