Comparisons of berberine and its derivatives on activation of MAPK signaling pathways. Cells were pretreated with berberine or dhBBR, or Di-MeBBR for 1 h, followed by incubation with oxLDL for 1, 3, and 6 h. Nuclear fractions were isolated, nuclear NFκB p65 and phospho-p65 were measured by Western blotting. (A, C) Effects of oxLDL on nuclear translocation of NFκB p65 and phospho-p65 expression. (B, D, D) Berberine and its derivatives (dhBBR, di-MeBBR) on nuclear translocation of NFκB p65 and phospho-p65 expression. Lamin B and β-Actin was used for protein level normalization. *P < 0.05 vs. BBR group. #
P < 0.05 vs. 0 h (C) or untreated control group (D, E).