Immunomax ® activates mouse and human dendritic cells. (A,B) Incubation of Balb/c mouse BM-DC (A) and S-DC (B) with Immunomax® (10 μg/ml) for 18 hrs increases the expression of surface CD86 co-stimulatory molecules. Upper panels depict flow cytometry histograms for CD86 after incubation in the absence (solid line with gray filling) or presence (solid line without filling) of Immunomax®, as well as appropriate isotype controls. Lower panels depict normalized mean fluorescence intensity (mean ± SD, **P < 0.01). (C) Immunomax® increases production of IL-12 cytokine by mouse S-DC and BM-DC. Upper panels depict flow cytometry dot plots for IL-12 expressing DC after incubation in the absence or presence of Immunomax®. Lower panels depict percent of IL-12 expressing S-DC and BM-DC (mean ± SD, *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01). Consolidated data of three independent experiments are shown. (D,E) Immunomax® activates myeloid but not plasmocytoid human dendritic cells. (D TNF-α mRNA was oppositely expressed in sorted M-DC (lin1neg CD11chigh CD123neg HLA-DRhigh) (□) and P-DC (lin1neg CD11cneg CD123high HLA-DRhigh) (gray square) in response to Immunomax® or ODN CpG-2006, respectively. (E) Immunomax® (gray square) increases transcription of genes encoding IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-8 in sorted human M-DC relative to untreated control M-DC (■). Consolidated data (mean ± SD) of 7 separate experiments are represented.