Co-localization of LMFs and NK cells in hepatitis B related LF patients and phenotypic characterization of LMFs. (A) CD56+ NK cells infiltrate the diseased liver tissues (bar, 100 μm), and a high level of α-SMA is expressed in both chronic (CLF) and acute (ALF) hepatitis B related LF patients (bar, 200 μm). 1 of 15 representative micrographs is shown. (B) Confocal immunofluorescence shows that CD56+ NK cells are in close proximity to LMFs (α-SMA+) at the sites of liver inflammation, and 1 of 15 representative micrographs is shown. Bar, 50 μm. (C) Immunofluorescence staining of LMFs isolated from representative samples of LF patients. Bar, 20 μm. (D) The surface markers of LMFs cultured for 3-5 population doublings were analyzed by flow cytometry (open profiles, isotype; black filled profiles, stained with indicated Abs). The percentage of positive cells is shown.