The mRNA expressions of regulated upon activation normal T cell expressed and secreted factors (RANTES) (A) and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1α) (B) in lung cancer cells (A549), or transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) (C), Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) (D), and interleukin 4 (IL-4) (E) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. A549 cells were planted in the lower chamber of the transwell and stimulated with LPS at 100 and 500 ng/ml or vehicle for 24 hrs. PBMCs from healthy donors were then added to the upper chamber of the transwell for co-culture for 48 hrs. The control group was PBMC from healthy donors without co-culture. + and ++ stand for p values less than 0.05 and 0.01, respectively, as compared with vehicle-stimulated co-cultured A549). * and ** stand for p values less than 0.05 and 0.01, respectively, as compared with A549 at 72 h after corresponding LPS stimulation.