Collagen (COL) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression in the aorta and liver. A. shows a Q-RT-PCR analysis of COL1A2 expression in the aortas, a major marker of fibrosis. Note that COL1A2 levels were essentially the same in the aortas of both hSMAD3-HCD- and Neo-HCD-treated animals. B. shows a Q-RT-PCR analysis of COL2A1 expression in aortas, another marker of fibrosis. Note that COL2A1 levels were significantly lower in the aortas of both hSMAD3-HCD-treated than Neo-HCD-treated animals. C. shows a Q-RT-PCR analysis of CTGF expression in the aortas, again, another marker of fibrosis. No significant change is seen in any experimental group. D, E, and F show an analogous Q-RT-PCR analysis of COL1A2, COL2A1, and CTGF expression, respectively, but this time in the liver. Note that all three genes are significantly down-regulated by hSMAD3 delivery compared to Neo control, fully consistent with lower fibrosis.