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Table 3 Effects of oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol in neoplastic, neurodegenerative and skin diseases

From: Beneficial effects of the olive oil phenolic components oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol: focus on protection against cardiovascular and metabolic diseases

Protection Model Effect Mechanism References
Cancer Bladder cancer cells ↓cell proliferation n.d. [75]
  Breast cancer cells ↓cell proliferation ↓Cyclin D1, ↓Pin1, [42],[43],[73],[75],[78],[79],[97]
   cell cycle arrest ↑c-jun, ↑H2O2  
   ↓motility and invasiveness   
   ↑apoptosis   
   ↓DNA damage   
  Colon cancer cells ↓cell proliferation ↑H2O2 [42],[79]
   ↑apoptosis   
   ↓motility and invasiveness   
  Glia cancer cells ↓motility n.d. [79]
  Leukemia cells ↓cell proliferation ↑H2O2, ↑Cyclin D3, [41],[72],[76]
   cell cycle arrest ↓CDK6  
   ↑apoptosis   
   ↓DNA damage   
  Prostate cancer cells ↓cell proliferation ↑H2O2, ↑O2 [42],[44]
   ↑apoptosis   
  Renal cancer cells ↓cell proliferation n.d. [79]
  Thyroid cancer cells cell cycle arrest ↓pAKT, ↓pERK [80]
   ↑apoptosis   
  Mice xenograft and albino hairless HOS:HR-mice ↓tumor growth ↓COX-2, ↓VEGF, ↓MMP-2/9/13 [81],[98]
Neurodegenerative disease Brain hypoxia-reoxygenation antioxidant ↓inflammation ↓lipid peroxidation, ↓PGE2, ↓IL1β, ↓NO [92]
  In vitro assay ↓Tau aggregation n.d. [90]
  Sprague–Dawley rats ↓spinal cord injury ↓MDA activity [91]
Skin disease Albino hairless HOS:HR and C57BL/6J mice ↑UVB protection ↓MMP-13 [98],[99]
  Balb/c mice ↑wound healing ↑VEGF [95]
  1. Abbreviations: AKT serine/threonine-specific protein kinase; CDK cyclin-dependent protein kinase; c-jun transcription factor member; COX-2 cyclooxygenase-2; H 2 O 2 hydrogen peroxide; ERK extracellular regulated kinase; IL1β interleukin 1β; MDA malondialdehyde; MMP-2/9/13 matrix metalloproteinase; NO nitric oxide; O 2 superoxide ions; Pin1 peptidyl-prolyl cis–trans isomerase; PGE2 prostaglandin E2; VEGF vascular endothelial growth factor; n.d. not determined.