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Table 2 Effects and mechanisms involved in the cardiovascular protection of oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol

From: Beneficial effects of the olive oil phenolic components oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol: focus on protection against cardiovascular and metabolic diseases

Protection Effect Mechanism References
Vascular disease antioxidant LDL oxidation [24],[49],[50]
   Lipid peroxidation [51]
  ↓ endothelial activation VCAM-1 [53]
  ↓ monocyte adhesion   
  ↓ platelet aggregation n.d. [54]
   ↓COX-2 activity [55]
   ↓thromboxane A2  
   ↑NO  
  ↓ VSME proliferation ↓ERK 1/2 phosphorylation [56]
Heart disease ↓ coronary occlusion (*) CK activity [57]
   GSSG  
  ↓ cardiotoxicity (**) ↑AMPK phosphorylation [58],[59]
   ↓iNOS expression  
   METC activity  
  ischemia hypolipidemia [61]
   ↓SOD activity  
  myocardial infarction Akt phosphorylation [62]
   eNOS phosphorylation  
   FOXO3a phosphorylation  
  1. (*) myocardial injury induced by ischemia; (**) DXR-induced toxicity; n.d.: not determined.
  2. Abbreviations: AMPK 5’-AMP-activated protein kinase; CK Creatine kinase; COX cyclooxygenase; DXR doxorubicin; eNOS endothelial nitric oxide synthase; ERK extracellular regulated kinase; GSSG Oxidize glutathione; iNOS inducible nitric oxide synthase; LDL low-density lipoproteins; MMP matrix metalloproteinases; METC mitochondrial electron transport chain; NO nitric oxide; PDE phosphodiesterase; SOD superoxide dismutase; VCAM vascular adhesion molecule; VSME vascular smooth muscle cells.