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Table 1 Controversial results on the capacity of R5 vs. X4 HIV-1 to replicate in primary CD4+ T lymphocytes in vitro

From: Asymmetric HIV-1 co-receptor use and replication in CD4+ T lymphocytes

CELL TYPE STIMULATORY CONDITIONS KEY REFERENCES
X4=R5
Lymphoid histo-cultures none Grivel et al. (40)
X4>R5
Lymphocyte tissue suspensions none Eckstein et al. (38)
Cord blood CD4+ T cells PHA+IL-2 Sundaravaradan et al. (42)
PBMC-derived Th2 cell clones Anti-CD3 mAb or Der P1+ IL-2 Maggi et al. (51) Annunziato et al. (52)
PBMC-derived Th2 cells Anti-CD3+anti-CD28 mAb Gosselin et al. (54)
R5>X4
PBMC-derived CD4+ T cells none Fiser et al. (44)
PBMC-derived Th1 cell clones Anti-CD3 mAb or Der P1+ IL-2 Maggi et al. (51) Annunziato et al. (52)
Cord blood derived Th0, Th1, Th2 cells Anti-CD3 mAb + IL-2 Vicenzi et al. (55)
PBMC-derived Th1 and Th2 cell clones Anti-CD3 mAb+ IL-2 Vicenzi et al. (55)
PBMC-derived CD4+ T cells co-cultured with DC Anti-CD3+anti-CD28 mAb Yamamoto et al. (43)
Naïve and memory peripheral T cells None Bleul (25)
Recto-signoidal histocultures None Grivel et al. (40)
Cervico-vaginal histocultures Culture medium Saba et al. (41)
  1. * after normalization per number of CCR5 vs. CXCR4 expressing cells.