GLV-1h153 infection and killing in cell culture and in vivo. a. PANC-1 cells were infected by various GLV-1h153at MOIs of 0.01, 0.1, and 1.0. Cell viability was determined via lactate dehydrogenase assays, and was set at 100% before infection. GLV-1h153 infected and was cytotxic at various MOIs, with less than 20% survival of cells as compared to control at an MOI of 1.0 by day 9. The values are the mean of triplicate samples, and bars indicate SD. b. GFP expression is shown to be time-dependent, with abundant GFP expression by day 3. Phase overlay pictures shows gradual cell death and thus decline of GFP expression by day 7. Closer examination of infected cells reveals loss of normal morphology and cell progressive cell detachment. c. 2 × 106 PFUs of GLV-1h153 or GLV-1h68, or PBS were injected IVly or ITly into nude mice bearing s.c. PANC-1 tumors on the hindleg (~100 mm3). GLV-1h153 was able to regress pancreatic tumor xenograft both ITly and IVly starting at day 13. The values are a mean of 4-5 mice, with bars indicating SEM. d. GLV-1h153 infection of pancreatic tumor xenografts did not have adverse effects on body weight at 5 weeks post injection, with the IT group even gaining weight compared to control.