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Table 1 Critical Hurdles in Cancer Immunotherapy Identified by SITC and Collaborating Associations

From: Defining the critical hurdles in cancer immunotherapy

1. Limitations of current animal models to predict efficacy of cancer immunotherapy strategies in humans
2. Prolonged time to obtain approval to initiate clinical trials
3. Complexity of cancer, tumor heterogeneity and immune escape
4. Limited availability of reagents for combination immunotherapy studies
5. Limited funds available to translate science into patients
6. Lack of definitive biomarker(s) for assessment of clinical efficacy of cancer immunotherapies
7. Conventional clinical response criteria do not take into consideration differences between response patterns to cytotoxic agents and immunotherapies
8. Paucity of teams of scientists and clinicians dedicated to translational research in cancer immunotherapy
9. Insufficient exchange of information critical to advancing the field