Dose- and time-dependent Aldo release and CYP11B2 expression in HMC. (A) Significant increase in Aldo release by HMC exposed to increasing concentration of pIgA from IgAN patients. (B) HMC cultured with pIgA (0.5 mg/ml) from IgAN patients, exhibited time-related increase in Aldo release (from 12 h, peaked at 48 h). (C) AngII induced Aldo release (at concentration > 10-12 M) and CYP11B2 protein synthesis (at concentration > 10-11 M) from HMC. (D) AngII (10-10 M) induced time-related increase of Aldo release and CYP11B2 protein synthesis in HMC. The results represent the mean ± SD from five individual experiments. * signifies p < 0.05 when compared with data from HMC cultured in plain medium or data from time zero.