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Table 1 Categories and attributes of T cell biomarkers

From: Biomarkers in T cell therapy clinical trials

Category Platforms Assay Advantages Disadvantages
Presence Flow cytometry Surface marker detection Individual cells detected Sample intensive
Low sensitivity
Specific detection reagent
  PCR Transgene-specific amplification High sensitivity Bulk analysis
  Deep sequencing Detection of specific TcR clonotypes Extremely high sensitivity Technology intensive
Phenotype/Function Flow cytometry Surface and intracellular marker detection Individual cells detected
Many markers available
Sample intensive
Relevant functional markers unclear
Bioactivity Flow Cytometry Surface and intracellular marker detection Individual cells detected Low sensitivity
Sample intensive
  Biochemical Soluble factor detection Multi-plexable
Bulk analysis
Potentially indirect
  High-throughput Arrays Transcriptional profiling
Proteomic profiling
Cytokine profiling
Relatively unbiased
High throughput
High end
Cost intensive
Immune response Flow cytometry Cellular and humoral immune responses Individual responses can be characterized Low sensitivity
Often requires in vitro expansion
  ELISA Humoral immune responses High sensitivity