IMP321 increases the expression of activation markers on blood monocytes. Blood samples were collected pre-dosing, at D1, D85 and D170 and directly stained with fluorochrome-conjugated CD45, CD14, anti-HLA-DR and CD11a, CD11b, CD16, CD35, CD54, CD64, CD80 or CD86 antibodies in tubes containing a precise number of fluorescent control beads. The expression of activation markers on monocytes was directly proportional to the cell-bound fluorescence. The results shown in panel A are the mean ± sd after normalization of the cell-bound fluorescence against the fluorescence of control beads. Statistically significant increases between D85 or D170 and D1 are analyzed using Wilcoxon signed rank test and significant p values (< 0.05) are shown. In panel B, the percentage of patients showing increases in the expression of the indicated numbers of activation markers at D85 or D170 compared to the baseline at D1 was calculated. The number of markers (n) displaying an increase by at least 50% was calculated for each patient in the 1.25 mg (7 patients) and 6.25 mg (12 patients) groups. The pie charts represent the percentages of patients with increases in the indicated number of markers.