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Table 1 Examples of LLL Properties Relevant to COPD

From: Lasers, stem cells, and COPD

COPD Property LLL Experiment LLL Details Ref
Inflammation In vivo. Decreased joint inflammation in zymosan-induced arthritis Semiconductor laser (685 nm and 830 nm) at (2.5 J/cm2) [105]
  In vitro. Suppression of LPS-induced bronchial inflammation and TNF-alpha. 655 nm at of 2.6 J/cm2 [34]
  In vivo. Carrageenan-induced pleurisy had decreased leukocyte infiltration and cytokine (TNF-alpha, IL-6, and MCP) 660 nm at 2.1 J/cm2 [106]
  In vitro. LPS stimulated Raw 264.7 monocytes had reduced gene expression of MCP-1, IL-1 and IL-6 780 nm diode laser at 2.2 J/cm2) [102]
  In vivo. Suppression of LPS-stimulated neutrophil influx, myeloperoxidase activity and IL-1beta in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. 660 nm diode laser at 7.5 J/cm2 [35]
  In vitro. Inhibition of TNF-alpha induced IL-1, IL-8 and TNF-alpha mRNA in human synoviocytes 810 nm (5 J/cm2) suppressed IL-1 and TNF, (25 J/cm2) also suppressed IL-8 [32]
  In vivo. Reduction of TNF-alpha in diaphragm muscle after intravenous LPS injection. 4 sessions in 24 h with diode Ga-AsI-Al laser of 650 nm and a total dose of 5.2 J/cm2 [104]
  In vivo. Inhibition of LPS induced peritonitis and neutrophil influx 3 J/cm2 and 7.5 J/cm2 [103]
Growth Factor Production
  In vivo. Upregulation of TGF-β and PDGF in rat gingiva after incision. He-Ne laser (632.8 nm) at a dose of 7.5 J/cm2 [36]
  In vitro. Osteoblast-like cells were isolated from fetal rat calvariae had increased IGF-1 Ga-Al-As laser (830 nm) at (3.75 J/cm2). [107]
  In vitro. Upregulated production of IGF-1 and FGF-2 in human gingival fibroblasts. 685 nm, for 140 s, 2 J/cm2 [37]
Angiogenesis
  In vivo. Increased fiber to capillary ratio in rabbits with ligated femoral arteries. Gallium-aluminum-arsenide (Ga-Al-As) diode laser, 904 nm and power of 10 mW [114]
  In vitro. Stimulation of HUVEC proliferation by conditioned media from LLL-treated T cells 820 nm at 1.2 and 3.6 J/cm2. [119]
  In vitro. 7-fold increased production of VEGF by cardiomyocytes, 1.6-fold increase by smooth muscle cells (SMC) and fibroblasts. Supernatant of SMC had increased HUVEC-stimulating potential. He:Ne continuous wave laser (632 nm). 0.5 J/cm2 for SMC, 2.1 J/cm2 for fibroblasts and 1.05 J/cm2 for cardiomyocytes. [113]
  In vitro. Direct stimulation of HUVEC proliferation 670 nm diode device at 2 and 8 J/cm2 [112]
Direct Stem Cell Effects
  In vivo. LLL precondition significantly enhanced early cell survival rate by 2-fold, decreased the apoptotic percentage of implanted BMSCs in infarcted myocardium and increased the number of newly formed capillaries. 635 nm at 0.96 J/cm2 [120]
  In vitro. LLL stimulated MSC proliferation, VEGF and NGF production, and myogenic differentiation after 5-aza induction. 635 nm diode laser at 0.5 J/cm2 for MSC proliferation, 5 J/cm2 for VEGF and NGF production and for augmentation of induced myogenic differentiation [121]
  In vitro. Increased proliferation of rat MSC. Red light LED 630 nm at 2 and 4 J/cm(2) [116]
  In vitro. Augmented proliferation of bone marrow and cardiac specific stem cells. GA-Al-As 810 nm at 1 and 3 J/cm2 [117]
  In vitro/In vivo. Administration of LLL-treated MSC resulted 53% reduction in infarct size, 5- and 6.3-fold significant increase in cell density that positively immunoreacted to BrdU and c-kit, respectively, and 1.4- and 2-fold higher level of angiogenesis and vascular endothelial growth factor, respectively, when compared to non-laser-treated implanted cells Ga-Al-As laser (810 nm wavelength), 1 J/cm2 [118]
  In vitro. Enhanced proliferation of adipose derived MSC in presence of EGF. 636 nm diode, 5 J/cm2 [55]
  In vitro. Enhanced proliferation and beta-1 integrin expression of adipose derived MSC. 635 nm diode laser, at 5 J/cm2 [54]
  Clinical. 660 stroke patients: 331 received LLL and 327 received sham. No prespecified test achieved significance, but a post hoc analysis of patients with a baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score of <16 showed a favorable outcome at 90 days on the primary end point (P < 0.044). 808 nm. No density disclosed. [100]