Ex vivo cytokine measurements and in vitro monocytic release of IL-10 and IL-12p40. Panel A: Patient serum was collected at the indicated time-points and used to evaluate IL-12p40, TGF-β1 and HGF levels by ELISA. Bars depict median values and interquartile ranges recorded in 12 independent experiments performed in duplicate. °p < 0.01 when comparing IL-12p40 levels on day +7 vs. day +21. °°p = 0.0036 when comparing IL-12p40 levels on day +11 vs. baseline and vs. day +21. *p = 0.0023 when comparing HGF levels on day +7 and day +11 vs. baseline. §p = 0.0062 when comparing HGF levels on day +7 and day +11 vs. baseline and vs. day +21. Panel B: Monocytes were purified on day +11 from the commencement of cytokine treatment, coincident with maximal mobilization into the peripheral blood. Cells (1 × 106) were stimulated with 1 μg/ml LPS in complete culture medium for up to 96 hours. Supernatants were harvested daily and used to measure IL-10 and IL-12p40 by ELISA. IL-10 and IL-12p40 levels were also estimated in 7 patients with gynecological cancers treated with daily G-CSF. Median values and interquartile range are shown. *p < 0.01 compared with IL-12p40 levels in supernatants of post-filgrastim monocytes.