AST inhibits angiogenesis induced by the chemokine IL-8 but not by CCL2. AST effectively inhibited angiogenesis induced by IL-8, and this inhibition was reversed by anti-IL12 antibodies. In contrast, AST was unable to inhibit angiogenesis induced by CCL2, while a systemic naked DNA IL-12 approach resulted in effective angiogenesis inhibition. These data indicate that CCL2, which preferentially targets monocytes and macrophages, skews these cells toward a AST resistant phenotype. N = indicates the number of samples in each group. * = P < 0.05; ** = P < 0.01; (Mann-Whitney) as compared to respective controls.